How do wall-less plates work?
The DropArray plates are made with a hydrophobic planar surface and either 96- or 384- hydrophobic spots, arrayed in the standards SBS/ANSI format. DropArray plates are uniquely designed for three applications.

DA-Cell plate

DA-Cell plates are used for cell processing of suspensions cells for flow cytometry assays. Each plate has 96 wells designed with two satellites to allow for dual-nozzle laminar flow washing via the DA-Cell washing station (HT1000). Each well has its own nozzles for quick and simultaneous washing of each well. Each well can have volumes up to 70 ul which is equivalent to approximately 5 million cells.

DA-Bead 96-well plate

DA-Bead plates are used for bead-based immunoassay assays. Plates are formatted in either 96- or 384-well formats and laminar flow washing occurs with by flooding the plate with buffer via the DropArray washing stations (LT210 or HT200).

DA-HCS 384-well plate

DA-HCS plates are used for high content screening assays and cell culture. Plates are formatted in either 96- or 384-well formats and laminar flow washing occurs using the DropArray washing stations (LT210 or HT200). Plates are also offered in several coated formats for specific cell-based assays (poly-lysine, collagen, etc.) and custom coating can be requested as well.

Applications of DropArray Technology

Versteeg L, Le Guezennec X, Zhan B, et al. Transferring Luminex® cytokine assays to a wall-less plate technology: Validation and comparison study with plasma and cell culture supernatants. Journal of Immunological Methods. 2017;440:74-82.

Tan-Garcia A, Wai L-E, Zheng D, et al. Intrahepatic CD206+ macrophages contribute to inflammation in advanced viral-related liver disease. Journal of Hepatology. 2017.

See P, Dutertre C-A, Chen J, et al. Mapping the human DC lineage through the integration of high-dimensional techniques. Science. 2017;356(6342).

McGovern N, Shin A, Low G, et al. Human fetal dendritic cells promote prenatal T-cell immune suppression through arginase-2. Nature. 2017;advance online publication.

Lim JS, Ibaseta A, Fischer MM, et al. Intratumoural heterogeneity generated by Notch signalling promotes small-cell lung cancer. Nature. 2017;545(7654):360-364.

Jing W, Cui J, Fu Y, et al. A novel method for multiple cytokines/chemokines DropArray assay in 5 μL of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in mice. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical. 2017;242:195-201.

Durairaj RRP, Aberkane A, Polanski L, et al. Deregulation of the endometrial stromal cell secretome precedes embryo implantation failure. Molecular Human Reproduction. 2017.

Le Guezennec X, Lye M. Improving Bead-Based Multiplexing in Bodily Fluids. Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News. 2016;36(2):12-13.

Jani D, Allinson J, Berisha F, et al. Recommendations for Use and Fit-for-Purpose Validation of Biomarker Multiplex Ligand Binding Assays in Drug Development. The AAPS Journal. 2016;18(1):1-14.

Du G, Fang Q, den Toonder JMJ. Microfluidics for cell-based high throughput screening platforms—A review. Analytica Chimica Acta. 2016;903:36-50.

Le Guezennec X, Quah J, Tong L, Kim N. Human tear analysis with miniaturized multiplex cytokine assay on “wall-less” 96-well plate. Molecular Vision. 2015;21:1151-1161.

Ingle GS, Scales SJ. DropArray™, a Wall-Less 96-Well Plate for Uptake and Immunofluorescence Microscopy, Confirms CD22 Recycles. Traffic. 2014;15(3):255-272.

Dreze M, Calkins AS, Gálicza J, et al. Monitoring Repair of UV-Induced 6-4-Photoproducts with a Purified DDB2 Protein Complex. PLOS ONE. 2014;9(1):e85896.

Quiñones GA, Moore TI, Nicholes K, et al. Application of a new wall-less plate technology to complex multistep cell-based investigations using suspension cells. Blood. 2013;121(7):e25.

Kozak KR, Wang J, Lye M, et al. Micro-volume wall-less immunoassays using patterned planar plates. Lab on a Chip. 2013;13(7):1342-1350.

Maximize Data Quality. Minimize Reagent Consumption.
DropArray technology has applications and product specific offerings in three main areas of research:

  • Magnetic Bead-based Immunoassays
  • Cell processing for staining and retention of suspension cells in flow cytometry applications
  • High content screening applications including transfection, autophagy, and drug screening
Application Traditional Challenges DropArray Solutions DropArray Platform Advantages
Centrifuge-less cell processing for flow cytometry assays Traditional centrifuge-based preparationof cells are time consuming, labor intensive, waste expensive reagents, and stress cells. There is significant cell loss and incomplete washing resulting in problems with gating and cell segmentation. DA-Cell DA-Cell technology retains more than 95% of cells, completes washing in 2-4 minutes, significantly easier gating and segregation of cell populations even with high number of colors, and offers consistent, operator-independent, reliable data.
Magnetic Bead-based Immunoassays Traditional microplates require large volumes of reagent. Beads and assay reagents are expensive, limiting data output. The majority of beads, which are very costly, are wasted unnecessarily. The walls limit efficient washing and enable bead aggregation affecting the quality of data. DA-Bead Miniaturization with the DA-Bead plates reduces sample volume and bead consumption by 5X and decreases assay costs by >60%. Laminar flow washing is efficient and limits bead aggregation.
High Content Assays
Cell transfection Autophagy assays Drug screening (cardiomyocytes, hepatocytes, mitotic index, and iPS/stem cell and differentiation cell assays)
Traditional microplates require multi-step staining procedures add a huge (unsustainable) expense. DA-HCS Minimizing cell use helps drastically reduce antibody and reagent costs, up to 90%.  Enabling for stem cell and differentiation assays where rare cells are expensive and limited.  Cell culture can even be performed in sample DA wall-less plate with continuity of workflow for drug screening. Both 96- and 384-well DA-HCS on available.

Uniquely Designed Features of Plates by Application

  Application Research Area Format Laminar Flow Washing Method Volume
DA-Cell Suspension cell preparation for flow cytometry Cell analysis 96-well Dual nozzole individual cell Up to 70 µl
DA-Bead Miniaturization of bead-based assays Protein detection/immunoassays 96- and 384-well Whole plate washing

5-20 µl for 96-well

2-4 µl for 384-well
DA-HCS Miniaturization of high-content screening and imaging assays Cell-based and imaging assays 96- and 384-well; option of different coatings for specific cell applications Whole plate washing

5–20 µl for 96-well

2_4 µl for 384-well